Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of chronic disability and death in the developing world and is the first one killer of people infected with HIV. The risk of contracting TB increases with HIV, especially after the CD4 counts start to fall and even after the institution of anti-retroviral therapy. Preventive therapy with isoniazid—a cheap and well-tolerated drug—has been instituted for more than five decades with good, measurable results.

Several clinical trials have confirmed the usefulness of the preventive use of isoniazid in people already infected with the HIV virus, even without the availability of proper anti-retroviral therapy for all those patients. A large cohort study in Brazil showed that the use of isoniazid had a synergy effect in patients treated with ART, with a 76% reduction in the TB incidence. However only a million of the approximately eligible people to receive this drug, have been duly treated due to several operational handicaps, including the erroneous perception that it might interfere with the ART efficacy.

Anani Badje et al. published the results of the TEMPRANO study—a randomised clinical trial that focused on the effects of the use of isonaizid in HIV patients with CD4 counts of less than 800 cells per ul but above the threshold for starting the anti-retroviral therapy. The initial results showed that both the use of isoniazid and anti-retroviral therapy reduced the grave clinical consequences of HIV infection and the use of both had the greatest benefits. After 6 months of the use of isoniazid in HIV patients, there was a 37% reduction in the mortality rate that was independent of the ART use.

The results of the TEMPRANO study are encouraging for HIV patients because:

  1. People with high CD4 counts had good survival rates over 5 years
  2. Benefits were noted for people with and without positive tests for TB
  3. Adjustment of baseline covariates did not change the final results
  4. Benefits of the use of isoniazid were independent of the ART

There should be a more forceful design and implementation of isoniazid delivery for the HIV patients who are at high risk of contracting TB and who would benefit the most.

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